مقاله: BIM Application Framework The Process of Expanding from 3D to Computable nD
The utilization of Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been growing significantly and translating into the support of various tasks within the construction industry. In relation to such a growth, many approaches that leverage dimensions of information stored in BIM model are being developed. Through this, it is
possible to allow all stakeholders to retrieve and generate information from the same model, enabling them to work cohesively. To identify gaps of existing work and evaluate new studies in this area, a BIM application framework is developed and discussed in this paper. Such a framework gives an overview of BIM applications in the construction industry. A literature review, within this framework, has been conducted and the result reveals a research gap for BIM applications in the project domains of quality, safety and environmental management. A computable multi-dimensional (nD) model is difficult to establish in these areas because with continuously changing conditions, the decision making rules for evaluating whether an individual component is considered good quality, or whether a construction site is safe, also vary as the construction progresses. A process of expanding from 3D to computable nD models, specifically, a possible way to integrate safety, quality and carbon emission variables into BIM during the construction phase of a project is explained in this paper. As examples, the processes of utilizing nD models on real construction sites are described. It is believed to benefit the industry by providing a computable BIM and enabling all project participants to extract any information required for decision making. Finally, the framework is used to identify areas to extend BIM research.